Horticulture is the art and science of growing plants in gardens to create food, medicine and other useful materials, or simply for relaxation and beautification purposes. In simple terms, it is described as a process that transforms a garden into a replica of the natural environment. Horticulture includes the cultivation of all types of plants, both for food and other purposes. These include flowers, trees, shrubs, ground covers, bushes, fruits, vegetables, and many other types of plants. The key aim of horticulture plants is to make the garden look beautiful and add to its functionality.
There are two main types of horticulture: hydroponics horticulture, which aim to grow plants by planting them in water containers; and soil gardening, which involves growing plants directly on the soil. Hydroponics is the more popular type of horticulture because it requires minimal space, minimum cultivation of the plants, and high productivity. The hydroponics system can be set-up inside a small building or can be set up in a greenhouse, a traditional garden, or a container filled with sand and gravel. On the other hand, soil gardening is considered the more difficult of the two. It can be grown in an individual’s backyard, in parks and arboretums, and in traditional gardens. It requires low-maintenance, high-yielding plants, which are generally grown in groups of similar plants, such as tomatoes, peaches, strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries.
Many people think that horticulture only deals with growing plants, but it also has other roles. In fact, horticulture has been very helpful in the development of cities. As horticulture techniques have been improved over time, so the quality of the soil surrounding the crops has also improved, and the soil’s water-holding capacity has been enhanced. This, in turn, has helped to make cities more fertile and arable.
In temperate climates, horticulture plays an important role. In such climates, such as in Japan, China, and Australia, where the climate is usually mild and stable, horticulture takes advantage of the long days of spring by encouraging plant growth. Plants that require extensive watering, such as tomatoes, can also be encouraged to grow in horticultural spaces. During summer, temperatures above seventy degrees are ideal for most vegetables. During winter, however, temperatures below twenty degrees are ideal.
In temperate climates, plants grown for horticulture usually include a range of fruits, including both the berries and the fruits of the tree. These include melons, pears, plums, ploma, guavas, quince leaves, strawberries, and blueberries. These vegetables are grown to be eaten, although some may be canned, dried, or pickled. Horticulture encourages insects to destroy pests in the root system, so that these vegetables are not susceptible to pathogenic diseases. As a result, horticulture has been credited with being an essential for maintaining healthy agriculture in these regions.
The variety of horticulture practiced in certain parts of the world reflects the culture of the people who originally grew the plants and harvested the produce. For instance, Asian horticulture is characterized by large-planting efforts that focus on the production of fruits and vegetables for local consumption. The plants are grown in small spaces with little concern for productivity and commercialization, whereas in other parts of the world, plantings are typically larger, more closely related to natural vegetation, and horticulture practices take greater consideration of quality rather than quantity. Some examples include the arid tropical forest regions of eastern Asia, where many types of exotic plants have been raised primarily for their fragrant flowers and leaves, with plant eating birds providing insects to destroy pests and disease, and where the plants are not harvested or planted for resale.